Similarly in Spain, citiES 2030 has initiated a process to transform Spanish cities that will articulate political commitment to decarbonisation and accelerate the development of roadmaps towards climate neutrality. The initiative has initiated this process with eight Spanish cities: Barcelona, Madrid, Seville, Soria, Valencia, Valladolid, Vitoria, and Zaragoza, in three phases: (i) securing political backing from the cities’ city councils; (ii) defining the cities’ commitment, which includes adhering to a transformation process and the design and approval of a roadmap toward decarbonisation; (iii) incorporating national and regional stakeholders to sign the contract. As multi-level governance is essential to the success of the mission, the contract must be signed by the city council and by relevant national or regional authorities. In the case of the eight cities, they were signed by the Mayors and the Spanish Vice-President.
Climate City Contracts are a novel tool, but national versions have already been pioneered in Sweden and Spain. Klimatkontrakt 2030 (Climate City Contract 2030) is a concentrated effort from Swedish cities and the national level to speed up the work to enable the transition towards climate-neutral cities 2030. As of December 2021, 23 Swedish cities and five government agencies are signatories to the Klimatkontrakt 2030 process. It is an agreement between cities, government agencies, and Viable Cities in a facilitating capacity, in which all parties commit to make concrete contributions. The contract is a long-term commitment and process that ensures cooperation between cities and the national level. The Klimatkontrakt 2030 includes a clear ambition to achieve net zero emissions by 2030. However, each city starts with its own politically adopted objective, and commits to raise their ambition step-by-step in the annual updating process.